Cingulum NeuroSciences Institute, functions and pathologies of Cingulate Cortex



Book: Cingulate Neurobiology
and Disease


Neuroscientific Expertise


Cingulate NeuroTherapeutics

Localizing Cingulate

Cingulate Cortex

Rat Cingulate Cortex (PDF)

Monkey Cingulate Cortex (PDF)


Buy Books

Rat Cingulate Cortex & Disease Models

Pain Processing, Cingulate Cortex and the Medical Pain System

A Psychiatrist’ Perspective on Cingulate Cortex

Alzheimer’s Disease

Kids’ Cingulate Kortex Korner



Neuroscientific Expertise

Although the Institute has general interests in the structure, functions, and pathologies of the cingulate cortex, we have developed specific areas of expertise that often proves valuable in consulting, grant proposals, and other ventures. These specific areas of interest include but are not limited to the following:


  • Cytoarchitecture; Human, Monkey, Rabbit, Rat
  • Stereology
  • General Immunohistochemistry
  • Thalamic and cortical connections; Monkey, Rabbit, Rat
  • Calcium-binding proteins
  • Intermediate neurofilament proteins


  • Opioid receptor localization and function; rodent, lagomorph, monkey, human
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor localization; rodent, monkey
  • G-protein transduction mechanisms and localization; rodent
  • Receptor localization with immunotoxin lesion technique; rodent

Imaging for Drug Development

  • Morphometric MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • PET


  • Nociceptive properties of neurons in rabbit, rat and monkey cingulate cortices
  • Pain processing in human
  • Mechanisms of avoidance learning and memory in rabbit

Functional Imaging

  • Morphometrics
  • Surface Rendering
  • Statistical Parametric Mapping
  • Actions of drugs in isoflurane-anesthetized monkeys

Complex Regression Statistics

  • Principal Components Analysis
  • Multiple regression analysis
  • Abstract factor testing
  • Models of human brain structure and patient characteristics


  • Alzheimer’s disease; clinicopathological subgroups

There is evidence from posterior cingulate area 23a that Alzheimer’s disease is comprised of five neuropathological subtypes (NST). These subgroups are based on differential laminar patterns of neurodegeneration as reported by Vogt, et al (1998; Experimental Neurology 153:8-22) Here we used Principal Components Analysis to evaluate associations among cases with similar patterns of cell death. This is an eigenvector projection demonstrating coherence among individuals in each statistical subgroup.

On a recent visit to CNSI, Dr. George Paxinos (below, at right) reviewed the cytological structure of each cingulate area in his large macrophotographs through the entire rat brain with Dr. Vogt. Dr. Paxinos’ atlases of the rat brain are among the most frequently used and cited in neuroscience research. In the third edition of Rat Nervous System (Paxinos, ed., 2004) there appears a chapter on cingulate cortex by Vogt, Vogt, and Farber and much of this information is provided under the heading Rat in this website. During his visit to CNSI, Dr. Paxinos also lectured to the faculty at SUNY Upstate Medical University on "Brain, Evolution, and Behavior."

copyright 2004-2009 Cingulum NeuroSciences Institute. All rights reserved.
Brent A. and Leslie J. Vogt.